Content Tags

There are no tags.

Survey of Hallucination in Natural Language Generation

Ziwei Ji, Nayeon Lee, Rita Frieske, Tiezheng Yu, Dan Su, Yan Xu, Etsuko Ishii, Yejin Bang, Andrea Madotto, Pascale Fung

Natural Language Generation (NLG) has improved exponentially in recent years thanks to the development of deep learning technologies such as Transformer-based language models. This advancement has led to more fluent and coherent natural language generation, naturally leading to development in downstream tasks such as abstractive summarization, dialogue generation and data-to-text generation. However, it is also investigated that such generation includes hallucinated texts, which makes the performances of text generation fail to meet users' expectations in many real-world scenarios. In order to address this issue, studies in evaluation and mitigation methods of hallucinations have been presented in various tasks, but have not been reviewed in a combined manner. In this survey, we provide a broad overview of the research progress and challenges in the hallucination problem of NLG. The survey is organized into two big divisions: (i) a general overview of metrics, mitigation methods, and future directions; (ii) task-specific research progress for hallucinations in a large set of downstream tasks: abstractive summarization, dialogue generation, generative question answering, data-to-text generation, and machine translation. This survey could facilitate collaborative efforts among researchers in these tasks.

Stay in the loop.

Subscribe to our newsletter for a weekly update on the latest podcast, news, events, and jobs postings.